Walkability Concept Toward Sustainable City: Comparative Insights of Brisbane and Bogor Urban Areas

Hana Yazid, Hayati Sari Hasibuan, Raldi Hendro Koestoer


A successful sustainable city prioritizes humans by integrating the transportation system with urban development. One of which is considering walkability. The walkability concept is important since walking reduces congestion, promotes low environmental impacts, and possesses social and economic values. Land use integration with walkable pedestrian facilities is a challenge for stakeholders in creating policies to actualize a sustainable city. This paper reviews the walkability condition and policies concerning pedestrian facilities in Brisbane, Australia and Bogor, Indonesia. Bogor was selected due to its strategic location as Jakarta’s satellite city. Method used was literature review with comparative analysis, analyzing similarities, differences, advantages, and disadvantages of urban policies in prioritizing humans to achieve walkable and sustainable city in Australia and Indonesia. The indicators determining Brisbane community’s behavior to walk are distance to destination (59%), travel time (14%), hot weather (19%), roads with various altitudes (4%), lack of paths (3%), and lack of green areas (1%). In Bogor, Indonesia, pedestrian facilities are lacked for people with special needs, elderlies, children, and pregnant women (16.5%), unsafe crossing facilities (19.8%), and unsafe rider behaviors (15.8%). Policies related to walkability can be used as a basis to influence the behavior of urban communities in walking, to achieve the shared goal: a sustainable city.


Afkara, A. V. and A. Kusuma (2020). Walking Distance Perception in Jakarta MRT Station Area. 2nd International Symposium on Transportation Studies in Developing Countries (ISTSDC 2019); 120–124

Al-Thani, S. M. and R. Furlan (2020). An Integrated Design Strategy for the Urban Regeneration of West Bay, Business District of Doha (State of Qatar). Designs, 4(4); 1–19

Althoff, T., R. Sosi?c, J. L. Hicks, A. C. King, S. L. Delp, and J. Leskovec (2017). Large-scale Physical Activity Data Reveal Worldwide Activity Inequality. Nature, 547(7663); 336–339

Bartzokas-Tsiompras, A., E. M. Tampouraki, and Y. N. Photis (2020). Is Walkability Equally Distributed among Downtowners? Evaluating the Pedestrian Streetscapes of eight European Capitals Using A Micro-scale Audit Approach. International Journal of Transport Development and Integration, 4(1); 75–92

Battista, G. A. and K. Manaugh (2019). Generating Walkability from Pedestrians’ Perspectives Using A Qualitative GIS Method. Travel Behaviour and Society, 17; 1–7

Cambra, P. and F. Moura (2020). How Does Walkability Change Relate to Walking Behavior Change? Effects of A Street Improvement in Pedestrian Volumes and Walking Experience. Journal of Transport and Health, 16; 100797

El-zemrany, A. and R. Kandil (2019). Quality of Life in Egypt: Walkability Assessment in El Mansheya Square, Alexandria, Egypt. Wit Transactions on The Built Environment, 188; 23–34

Frank, L. D., T. L. Schmid, J. F. Sallis, J. Chapman, and B. E. Saelens (2005). Linking Objectively Measured Physical Activity with Objectively Measured Urban Form: Findings from SMARTRAQ. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 28(2); 117–125

Gonzalez-Urango, H., M. Le Pira, G. Inturri, M. Ignaccolo, and M. Garc´?a-Mel´on (2020). Designing Walkable Streets in Congested Touristic Cities: The Case of Cartagena de Indias, Colombia. Transportation Research Procedia, 45; 309–316

Hasibuan, H., S. Moersidik, R. Koestoer, and T. P. Soemardi (2014a). Using GIS to Integrate the Analysis of Land-use, Transportation, and the Environment for Managing Urban Growth Based on Transit Oriented Development in the Metropolitan of Jabodetabek, Indonesia. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 18(1); 012177

Hasibuan, H. S., T. P. Soemardi, R. Koestoer, and S. Moersidik (2014b). The Role of Transit Oriented Development in Constructing Urban Environment Sustainability, the Case of Jabodetabek, Indonesia. Procedia Environmental Sciences, 20; 622–631

Hatamzadeh, Y., M. Habibian, and A. Khodaii (2017). Walking Behavior Across Genders in School Trips, A Case Study of Rasht, Iran. Journal of Transport and Health, 5; 42–54

Hellberg, R., M. Guaralda, and D. Rinchumphu (2021). Urban Walkability Profiles in Brisbane. International Review for Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development, 9(3); 1–15

Hooi, E. and D. Pojani (2020). Urban Design Quality and Walkability: An Audit of Suburban High Streets in An Australian City. Journal of Urban Design, 25(1); 155–179

Hung, K.-C., M. Kalantari, and A. Rajabifard (2016). Methods for Assessing the Credibility of Volunteered Geographic Information in Flood Response: A Case Study in Brisbane, Australia. Applied Geography, 68; 37–47

Isiagi, M., K. J. Okop, and E. V. Lambert (2021). The Relationship Between Physical Activity and the Objectively measured Built Environment in Low-and High-income South African Communities. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(8); 3853

ITDP (2014). TOD Standar Indonesia v2.1. Institute for Transportation and Development Policy (in Indonesia)

Kirkpatrick, J. B., A. Davison, and G. D. Daniels (2013). Sinners, Scapegoats or Fashion Victims? Understanding the Deaths of Trees in the Green City. Geoforum, 48; 165–176

Lee, E. and J. Dean (2018). Perceptions of Walkability and Determinants of Walking Behaviour Among Urban Seniors in Toronto, Canada. Journal of Transport and Health, 9; 309–320

Lo, R. H. (2009). Walkability: What is It? Journal of Urbanism, 2(2); 145–166

L´opez Baeza, J., J. Carpio-Pinedo, J. Sievert, A. Landwehr, P. Preuner, K. Borgmann, M. Avakumovi´c, A. Weissbach, J. Bruns-Berentelg, and J. R. Noennig (2021). Modeling Pedestrian Flows: Agent-based Simulations of Pedestrian Activity for Land Use Distributions in Urban Developments. Sustainability, 13(16); 9268

Mccrea, R. and P. Walters (2012). Impacts of Urban Consolidation on Urban Liveability: Comparing An Inner and Outer Suburb in Brisbane, Australia. Housing, Theory and Society, 29(2); 190–206

Meetiyagoda, L. (2018). Pedestrian Safety in Kandy Heritage City, Sri Lanka: Lessons from World Heritage Cities. Sustainable Cities and Society, 38; 301–308

Middleton, J. (2021). The Walkable City. Taylor and Francis Ortega, E., B. Mart´?n, A. De Isidro, and R. Cuevas-Wizner ´ (2020). Street Walking Quality of the Centro District, Madrid. Journal of Maps, 16(1); 184–194

O’Hare, D. (2006). Urban Walkability in the Subtropical City: Some Intemperate Considerations from SEQ. Subtropical Cities 2006 Conference Proceedings: Achieving Ecologically Sustainable Urbanism in a Subtropical Built Environment, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia; 131–136

Prima, T. S. and L. Prayogi (2020). Kajian Perilaku Pejalan Kaki Pada Kawasan Transit Oriented Development (TOD). Jurnal Arsitektur Zonasi, 3(1); 1–10 (in Indonesia)

Rebecchi, A., M. Buffoli, M. Dettori, L. Appolloni, A. Azara, P. Castiglia, D. D’Alessandro, and S. Capolongo (2019). Walkable Environments and Healthy Urban Moves: Urban Context Features Assessment Framework Experienced in Milan. Sustainability, 11(10); 2778

Reisi, M., M. A. Nadoushan, and L. Aye (2019). Local Walkability Index: Assessing Built Environment Influence on Walking. Bulletin of Geography. Socio-economic Series, (46); 7–21

Sari, A. M., D. F. Sari, and S. Wibawani (2020). Penerapan Konsep Walkability Dalam Mendukung Kota Surabaya Sebagai Kota Metropolitan yang Produktif dan Berkelanjutan. Public Administration Journal of Research, 2(3); 1–19 (in Indonesia)

Singh, Y. J., A. Lukman, J. Flacke, M. Zuidgeest, and M. Van Maarseveen (2017). Measuring TOD Around Transit Nodes-Towards TOD Policy. Transport Policy, 56; 96–111

Song, Y., J. Preston, D. Ogilvie, and iConnect Consortium (2017). New Walking and Cycling Infrastructure and Modal Shift in the UK: A Quasi-experimental Panel Study. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 95; 320–333

Southworth, M. (2005). Designing the Walkable City. Journal of Urban Planning and Development, 131(4); 246–257

Tanan, N. and L. Darmoyono (2017). Achieving Walkable City in Indonesia: Policy and Responsive Design Through Public Participation. AIP Conference Proceedings, 1903(1); 080010

Tanan, N. and L. Tungga (2021). The Pedestrians’ Stories: Towards Walkable Cities in Indonesia. 55th ISOCARP World Planning Congress Jakarta-Bogor, Indonesia; 1–16

Telega, A., I. Telega, and A. Bieda (2021). Measuring Walkability with GIS—Methods Overview and New Approach Proposal. Sustainability, 13(4); 1883

Ujang, N. and Z. Muslim (2014). Walkability and Attachment to Tourism Places in the City of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Athens Journal of Tourism, 2(1); 53–65

United Nations (2015). Sustainable Development Goals 17 Goals to Transform Our World. Sustainable Development Energy

Us´on, T. F. and V. Fernandez-Anez (2020). Structuring A New Paradigm: from Mixed Use Developments to Integrated Urban Ecosystems. 588(5); 052044

Vale, D. S. (2015). Transit-oriented Development, Integration of Land Use and Transport, and Pedestrian Accessibility: Combining Node-place Model with Pedestrian Shed Ratio to Evaluate and Classify Station Areas in Lisbon. Journal of Transport Geography, 45; 70–80

Wang, J., Z. Wood, and M. Worboys (2016). Conflict in Pedestrian Networks. Geospatial Data in a Changing World: Selected Papers of the 19th AGILE Conference on Geographic Information Science; 261–278

Yang, K. and D. Pojani (2017). A Decade of Transit Oriented Development Policies in Brisbane, Australia: Development and Land-use Impacts. Urban Policy and Research, 35(3); 347–362


Hana Yazid
hana01@ui.ac.id (Primary Contact)
Hayati Sari Hasibuan
Raldi Hendro Koestoer
Yazid, H., Hasibuan, H. S. ., & Koestoer, R. H. . (2023). Walkability Concept Toward Sustainable City: Comparative Insights of Brisbane and Bogor Urban Areas. Indonesian Journal of Environmental Management and Sustainability, 7(1), 20-26. https://doi.org/10.26554/ijems.2023.7.1.20-26
Copyright and license info is not available

Article Details