Main Article Content
Herbicides are generally used in the control of weeds in plants. The use of synthetic chemicals such as herbicides is known to have a negative impact on the environment. This is because the chemicals in the herbicide can kill or poison the organisms that eat plants that are exposed to these chemicals. Glyphosate is one of the active ingredients of herbicides which is systemic, so it may leave a residue on weeds such as grasses which are usually used as animal feed. The aim of this study is to analyze the impact of glyphosate residues on changes in the organ tissue of goats (Capra hircus) fed with feed exposed to glyphosate compounds. The study was conducted using an experimental method with four treatments of glyphosate concentration including control. The treatment consists of four goats with age of 12 months. The results showed that glyphosate treatment in feed influenced the development and tissue of the goats. The higher the concentration of the residue exposed to the feed, the higher the residual concentration of glyphosate in livestock blood, namely 0.2377 ppm (P1), 0.3118 ppm (P2), and 0.9377 ppm (P3), respectively. The results of the observation on livestock organ tissue showed that there was severe damage to the liver and minor damage to the lung, gastric and kidney tissue. The higher the concentration of the residue exposed to the feed, the higher the residual concentration of glyphosate in livestock blood and causing more damage.
Anadón, A., Martínez-Larrañaga, M. R., Martínez, M. A., Castellano, V. J., Martínez, M., Martin, M. T., Nozal, M. J and J.L. Bernal. 2009. Toxicokinetics of glyphosate and its metabolite aminomethyl phosphonic acid in rats. Toxicol. Lett , 190(1), 91–95.
ATSDR. 2020. Toxicological Profile for Glyphosate. In U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (Issue August).
Baba, M. A and A. R. Choudhary. 2008. Histomorphology of the pulmonary alveoli of goat (Capra hircus). Vet World, 1(10), 312–313.
Baldwin, R. L and E. E. Connor. 2017. Rumen Function and Development. Vet Clin Food Anim, 33(3), 427–439.
Beecraft, L and R. Rooney. 2020. Bioconcentration of glyphosate in wetland biofilms. J. BioRxiv, 1–42.
Bian, Z., Y. Guo ., B. Ha., K. Zen and Y. Liu. 2012. Regulation of the Inflammatory Response: Enhancing Neutrophil Infiltration under Chronic Inflammatory Conditions. J. Immunol , 188(2), 844–853.
Bullough, P. G. 2010. Orthopaedic Pathology (Fifth Edition) (pp. 81–108). https://www .sciencedirect.com /topics /medicine-and-dentistry/ tissue-necrosis
EFSA. 2016. EU Assessment of the Carcinogenic Potential of Glyphosate. In European Food Safety Authority (Issue December).https: // corporateeurope.org /sites/default/files/attachments/sap-glyphosate- eu.pdf
EFSA. 2018. Evaluation of the impact of glyphosate and its residues in feed on animal health. EFSA J, 16(5).
Gillies, A. R. and R. L. Lieber . 2011. Structure and function of the skeletal muscle extracellular matrix. J. Muscle Nerve, 44(3), 318–331.
Hardy, D., A. Besnard., M. Latil ., G. Jouvion ., D. Briand., C.Thépenier ., Q. Pascal., A. Guguin ., B. Gayraud-Morel., J.M. Cavaillon., S. Tajbakhsh., P. Rocheteau, and F. Chrétien. 2016 Comparative study of injury models for studying muscle regeneration in mice. Journal PLos One, 11(1), 1–24.
Heymann, A.-K., K. Schnabel., F. Billenkamp., S. Bühler., J. Frahm ., S. Kersten., L. Hüther., U. Meyer., D. V. Soosten., N. Trakooljul., J.P. Teifke and S. Dänicke. (2021). Effects of glyphosate residues and different concentrate feed proportions in dairy cow rations on hepatic gene expression, liver histology and biochemical blood parameters. Plos One, 16(2), 1–23.
Ishaqa, Z and M. A. Nawaz. 2018. Analysis of contaminated milk with organochlorine pesticide residues using gas chromatography. Int. J. Food Prop., 21(1), 878–890.
Jabbar, A. I., R.S. Ibrahim., H.K. Ali and A. N. Lateef. 2018. Anatomical And Histological Invistgation Of The Kidney In Goat (Capra hircus). Diyala J. Agric. Sci, 10, 1–12.
Jakab, L. 2015. The liver and the immune system. Orv. Hetil., 156(30), 1203–1213.
Jarrel, Z. R., M.U. Ahammad and A.P. Benson. 2020. Glyphosate-based herbicide formulations and reproductive toxicity in animals. Vet. Anim. Sci., 1–29.
Karim, A. J and Z.M. Abbas. 2021. Histopathology of the kidney and seroprevalence of leptospirosis in wild rats in Baghdad Province , Iraq. Int. J. One Heal, 7(1), 19–30.
Khyalia, V., B. Meshram and N. Jakhar. 2019. Gross and Histomorphological Studies on the Respirat ory and Conducting Portions of Respiratory System in Goats ( Capra hircus ). Indian J. Vet. Anat, 31(2), 97–98.
Knudsen, L and M. Ochs . 2018. The micromechanics of lung alveoli: structure and function of surfactant and tissue components. Histochem. Cell Biol, 150(6), 661–676.
Krüger, M., A.A. Shehata., W. Schrödl and A. Rodloff. 2013. Glyphosate suppresses the antagonistic effect of Enterococcus spp. on Clostridium botulinum. Anaerobe, 20, 74–78.
Kwiatkowska, M., E. Reszka., K. Wo?niak., E. Jab?o?ska., J. Micha?owicz and B. Bukowska. 2017. DNA damage and methylation induced by glyphosate in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (in vitro study) Marta. Food Chem. Toxicol.
Malech, H. L., F. R. DeLeo., M. T. Quinn. 2014. The Role of Neutrophils in the Immune System: An Overview. Methods Mol. Biol, 3(10), 1–8.
Mukund, K and S. Subramaniam. 2019. Skeletal muscle: A review of molecular structure and function, in health and disease. Wileys Syst. Biol. Med, 12(1462), 1–46.
Naz, S., R. Iqbal., A. Ahmad., M. Jabbar., M.F. Muhammad., R. Yaqoob., M. Saeed., A. Hussain.,T. Aziz., S. H. Usman and A. Razaq. 2019. Effect of glyphosate on hematological and biochemical parameters of Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Pure Appl. Biol, 8(1), 78–92.
Nicolopoulou-Stamati, P., S. Maipas., C. Kotampasi., P. Stamatis and L. Hens. 2016. Chemical Pesticides and Human Health: The Urgent Need for a New Concept in Agriculture. Front. Public Heal, 4(148), 1–8.
Ohfuji, S. 2020. Retrospective analysis of globule leukocytes in parasite-free rumens of cattle: a histopathological research with literature review. Comp. Clin. Path., 29(3), 645–651.
Parish, J, A., J. D. Rivera and H.T. Boland. 2017. Understanding the Ruminant Animal Digestive System. Mississippi State University, 1–7. http://agris.fao.org/ agris-search/ search.do? recordID= US201300140503
Patrick, D, J and M.C.Rebelatto. 2015. Chapter 12 - Toxicologic Pathology and Background Lesions of Nonhuman Primates. In The Nonhuman Primate in Nonclinical Drug Development and Safety Assessment (pp. 235–256). https: //www.sciencedirect.com / science/ article/ pii/ B978012417 1442000123
Peillex, C and M. Pelletier. 2020. The impact and toxicity of glyphosate and glyphosate-based herbicides on health and immunity. J. Immunotoxicol, 17(1), 163–174.
Pencheva, P, M, S and M.T. Alexandrov. 2010. Some pathological features of lungs from domestic and wild ruminants with single and mixed Protostrongylid infections. Vet. Med. Int, 2010(September 2014), 1–9.
Perlman, C. E., D.J. Lederer and J. Bhattacharya. 2011. Micromechanics of alveolar edema. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol, 44, 34–39.
Reddy, M. V. B and Y.R. Reddy. 2015. Pesticide Residues in Animal Feed and Effects on Animals and Its Products With Special Reference To Endosulfan. I Int. J. Res. Ayurveda Pharm, 6(3), 371–374.
Robert, D.H. M. 2006. Chapter 2 - Stomach and Duodenum. Gastrointestinal Imaging (Third Edition), 47–101. https://www. sciencedirect. com/science /article/pii/B9780323032216500075
Saleh, S. M. M., T.A. Elghareeb., M.A.I. Ahmed., I.A. Mohamed and H.A. Ezz El-Din. 2018. Hepato-morpholoy and biochemical studies on the liver of albino rats after exposure to glyphosate-Roundup®. J. Basic Appl. Zool, 79(48), 1–11.
Samsel, A and S. Seneff. 2013. Glyphosate’s Suppression of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes and Amino Acid Biosynthesis by the Gut Microbiome: Pathways to Modern Diseases. Entropy, 15, 1416–1463.
Samsel, A and S. Seneff. 2015. Glyphosate, pathways to modern diseases IV: cancer and related pathologies. J. Biol. Phys. Chem, 15(3), 121–159.
Shehata, A. A., W. Schrödl., A.A. Aldin ., H.M. Hafez and M. Krüger. 2013. The effect of glyphosate on potential pathogens and beneficial members of poultry microbiota in vitro. Curr. Microbiol, 66(4), 350–358.
Sørensen, M. T., H.D. Poulsen., C.L. Katholm and O. Højberg . 2021. Review: Feed residues of glyphosate – potential consequences for livestock health and productivity. Int. J. Anim. Biosci, 15(1), 1–7.
Torretta, V., I.A. Katsoyiannis., P. Viotti and E.C. Rada. 2018. Critical Review of the Effects of Glyphosate Exposure to the Environment and Humans through the Food Supply Chain. J. Sustain, 10(950), 1–20.
Venumadhav, N., D.P. Kuma., N. Ramya and N. Rajendranath. 2019. Morphological Features of the Renal Collecting System in Goat (Capra hircus). T Pharma Innov. J, 8(10), 6–11.
Vicini, J. L., W.R. Reeve., J.T. Swarthout and K.A. Karberg. 2019. Glyphosate in livestock: feed residues and animal health. J. Anim. Sci, 97(11),4509–4518.
Wilson, J. L., J. Yu., L. Taylor and P.Polgar. 2015. Hyperplastic growth of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells from subjects with pulmonary arterial hypertension is activated through JNK and p38 MAPK. Plos One, 10(4), 1–16.
Yawn, D. H. 2020. Plasma. Encyclopaedia Britannica Inc. https: // www.britannica.com /print /article/463483
Zhang, K., B. Li., M. Guo., G. Liu ., Y. Yang., X. Wang., Y. Chen and E. Zhang. 2019. Maturation of the goat rumen microbiota involves three stages of microbial colonization. J. Anim., 9(1028), 1–17.