Psychological Problems During The COVID-19 Pandemic Among Medical Students : A Cross-Sectional Study

Putri Rizki Amalia Badri, Rury Tiara Oktariza


The pandemic of COVID-19 gave a great impact on college students learning activity, especially medical students. Thus, they may become vulnerable to have psychological problems such as anxiety, depression, and stress. The study aimed to investigate anxiety, depression, and stress rates among medical students during the pandemic of COVID-19 and the affecting factors. This cross-sectional study used DASS questionnaire online survey. 312 medical students, a total sampling in Muhammadiyah Palembang University participated in this study. The univariate analysis was used to determine the level of psychological problems while the bivariate analysis was carried out to determine the affecting factors. The study findings showed that 50.6% of the students reportedly had anxiety (12.2 % mild, 17.3% moderate, 10.9% severe, 10.3% very severe), 33% of the students had depression (13.5% mild, 11.9% moderate, 3.8% severe, 3.8% very severe), and 22.4% of the students had stress (10.6% mild, 9.3% moderate, 5.1% severe, 1.3% very severe). There were no differences between gender for anxiety, depression and stress (p=0.335, p=0.261, p=0.134 respectively). Junior students were more anxious than senior students (p=0.015). More than half of medical students experienced anxiety with moderate anxiety mostly during the COVID-19 pandemic, and junior students were more likely to suffer anxiety.


Alateeq DA, Sumayah A, Dalal A. 2020. Perceived stress among students in virtual classrooms during the COVID-19 outbreak in KSA. Journal of Taibah University Medical Sciences. 15(5), 398e403
Crawford JR & Henry JD. 2003. Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales ( DASS-21 ). British Journal of Clinical Psychology. 42(0), 111–131
Christianto LP. et al. 2021. Kecemasan Mahasiswa Di Masa Pandemi Covid-19. Jurnal Selaras?: Kajian Bimbingan dan Konseling serta Psikologi Pendidikan. 3(1), 67–82.
Claubaugh A, Duque JF, Fields LJ. 2020. Academic stress and emotional will-being in United states college students following the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Frontiers in Psychology. 12, 628787.
Hasanah U, Ludiana, Immawati, PHL. 2020. Gambaran Psikologis Mahasiswa Dalam Proses Pembelajaran Selama Pandemi Covid-19. J Keperawatan Jiwa. 8(3), 299–306.
Holzschneider K, Mulert C. 2011. Neuroimaging in anxiety disorders. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience. 13, 453–461.
Husky MM, Kovess-Masfety V, Swendsen JD. 2020. Stress and anxiety among university students in France during covid-19 mandatory confinement. Comprehensive Psychiatry. 102,152191.
Fruehwirth JC, Biswas S, Perreira KM. 2021. The Covid-19 pandemic and mental health of first-year college students: Examining the effect of Covid-19 stressors using longitudinal data. PLOS ONE. 16(3), e0247999.
Islam MA, Barna SD, Raihan H, Khan MNA, Hossain MT. 2020. Depression and anxiety among university students during the COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh: A web-based cross-sectional survey. PLOS ONE. 15(8), e0238162.
Kartika R. 2020. Analisis Faktor Munculnya Gejala Stres Pada Mahasiswa Akibat Pembelajaran Jarak Jauh Di Masa Pandemi Covid-19. Edukasi dan Teknologi. 1(2), 107–115.
Kartini, Jafriati, Ismail CS. 2021. Pandemi covid-19 pada mahasiswa Universitas Halu Oleo. Endemis Journal. 1(4), 7-14.
Khoshaim HB, Al-Sukayt A, Chinna K, Nurunnabi M., Sundarasen S, Kamaludin K, Baloch G M, & Hossain S. 2020. Anxiety level of University students during COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia. Frontiers in psychiatry, 11, 579750.
Kostic J, Zikic O, Dordevic V, Krivokapic Z. 2021. Perceived stress among university students in south-east Serbia during the COVID-19 outbreak. Annals of General Psychiatry. 20, 25.
Lubis H, Ramadhani A, Rasyid M. 2021. Stres Akademik Mahasiswa dalam Melaksanakan Kuliah Daring Selama Masa Pandemi Covid 19. Psikostudia?: Jurnal Psikologi. 10(1), 31-39
Ma Z, Zhao J, Li Y, Chen D, Wang T, Zhang Z, Chen Z, Yu Q, Jiang J, Fan F, Liu X. 2020. Mental health problems and correlates among 746217 college students during the coronavirusdisease 2019 outbreak in China. Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences. 29, e181, 1–10
Malhi GS, Mann JJ. 2018. Depression. Lancet. 392, 2299–2312
McCrae RR, Terracciano A. 2005. Universal features of personality traits from the observer’s perspective: data from 50 cultures. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 88(3), 547–561.
Oducado RM. 2021. Gender Differences in COVID-19 Anxiety Syndrome Among Filipino Nursing Students. (JKG) Jurnal Keperawatan Global. 6(1), 1-8.
Romeo A, Benfante A, Castelli L, Di Tella M. 2021. Psychological Distress among Italian University Students Compared to General Workers during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health. 18, 2503.
Rondonuwu WKV, Mewo MY, Wungouw ISH. 2021. Pendidikan Kedokteran di Masa Pandemi COVID-19 Dampak Pembelajaran Daring Bagi Mahasiswa Fakultas Kedokteran Angkatan 2017 UNSRAT. J Biomedik, 13(1), 67–75.
Saravanan K, Hariharan S, Karthikeyan R, Prasantha BK, Nagarathinam S. 2021. Depression and anxiety among students community during COVID-19 pandemic lockdown in Tamil Nadu-A web based descriptive cross sectional study. European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine. 8(3), 1076-1080.
Son C, Hedge S, Smith A, Wang X, Sasangohar F. 2020. Effects of COVID-19 on college students’ mental health in the United States: interview survey study. J Med Internet Res, 22(9),e21279.
Tosepu R, Effendy DS, Ahmad LOAI. 2020. The first confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Indonesian citizens. Public Health of Indonesia. 6(2), 70-71.
Van OJ, Tendolkar I, Hermans EJ, Mulders PC, Beckmann CF, Schene AH, Fernández G , Van EPF. 2017. How the brain connects in response to acute stress: a review at the human brain systems level. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews. 83, 281–297.
Wang X, Hegde S, Son C, Keller B., Smith, A, Sasangohar F. 2020. Investigating Mental Health of US College Students During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Cross-Sectional Survey Study. Journal of medical Internet research. 22(9), e22817.


Putri Rizki Amalia Badri (Primary Contact)
Rury Tiara Oktariza
Badri, P. R. A., & Oktariza, R. T. (2021). Psychological Problems During The COVID-19 Pandemic Among Medical Students : A Cross-Sectional Study. Indonesian Journal of Environmental Management and Sustainability, 5(3), 113-117.
Copyright and license info is not available

Article Details